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Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15: Everything You Need to Know About Small Sanitary Landfills in Brazil


Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15: A Guide to Small Sanitary Landfills




If you are a municipal manager or a waste management professional in Brazil, you may have heard of Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15. But what is it exactly and why is it important? In this article, we will explain what this norm is, what are its main objectives and scope, and how it can help you manage your urban solid wastes more efficiently and sustainably.




Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15



Introduction




Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 is a norm published by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT) in 2010. It specifies the minimum requirements for location, design, implementation, operation and closure of small sanitary landfills. These are landfills that dispose of around 20 tons of urban solid wastes per day.


This norm is important because urban solid wastes are a major environmental and public health problem in Brazil. According to data from IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), Brazil generated about 79 million tons of urban solid wastes in 2018. However, about 42% of these wastes were disposed of directly in open dumps or inadequate landfills, which pose serious risks to human health and the environment.


Small sanitary landfills are a viable alternative for small and medium-sized municipalities that cannot afford large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants. Small sanitary landfills can reduce the environmental impacts and risks of waste disposal, such as groundwater contamination, greenhouse gas emissions, odors, fires, pests and diseases.


What is Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15?




Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 is a norm that specifies the minimum requirements for location, design, implementation, operation and closure of small sanitary landfills. It provides guidelines that ensure the protection of human health and the environment and comply with the national policy on solid waste management.


The norm defines small sanitary landfills as those that dispose of around 20 tons of urban solid wastes per day. This amount corresponds to an average generation rate of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per day, assuming a population served by the landfill between 10 thousand and 40 thousand people.


The norm applies to urban solid wastes generated by households, commercial establishments, public services and similar sources. It excludes hazardous, industrial, health care and construction wastes, which require specific treatment and disposal methods.


Why is Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 important?




Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 is important because it helps municipalities improve their urban solid waste management and reduce their environmental impacts and risks.


The norm offers technical criteria for selecting suitable areas for small sanitary landfills. It considers aspects such as geology, hydrogeology, topography, soil characteristics, climate, land use, distance from urban areas, access roads, water bodies, protected areas and social acceptance.


The norm also recommends systems for environmental protection, such as liners, leachate collection and treatment, gas control and monitoring. These systems aim to prevent or minimize the migration of pollutants from the landfill to the surrounding environment.


The norm also suggests methods for waste compaction, covering and slope stabilization. These methods aim to optimize the use of space in the landfill, reduce odors and fire hazards, control pests and diseases, and improve the aesthetic appearance of the site.


The norm also establishes procedures for operational control, such as waste characterization, weighing, inspection and record keeping. These procedures aim to monitor the quantity and quality of waste received at the landfill, ensure compliance with legal requirements, identify problems or deviations from standards, and provide information for planning and decision making.


The norm also defines steps for closure and post-closure care, such as final covering, revegetation, maintenance and monitoring. These steps aim to restore the environmental conditions of the site after the end of its useful life, prevent or mitigate potential impacts or risks associated with residual waste or leachate generation, and ensure long-term safety and stability.


How can Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 help municipalities manage their urban solid wastes?




Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 can help municipalities manage their urban solid wastes more efficiently and sustainably by providing them with a practical and affordable solution for waste disposal.


By following the guidelines of the norm, municipalities can implement small sanitary landfills that meet the minimum requirements for location, design, implementation, operation and closure. These landfills can offer several benefits, such as:


  • Lower cost: small sanitary landfills require less investment and operational expenses than large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants.



  • Easier implementation: small sanitary landfills can be built and operated in a shorter time and with less technical complexity than large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants.



  • Less land use: small sanitary landfills occupy less space than large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants, which can reduce land conflicts and environmental impacts.



  • Less transportation distance: small sanitary landfills can be located closer to the waste generation sources, which can reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and transportation costs.



  • Less social resistance: small sanitary landfills can be more accepted by the local communities than large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants, which can face opposition due to environmental or social concerns.



However, small sanitary landfills also have some limitations and challenges, such as:


  • Limited capacity: small sanitary landfills have a limited lifespan and volume, which can restrict their ability to cope with increasing waste generation rates or population growth.



  • Higher operational complexity: small sanitary landfills require more frequent and careful operational activities, such as waste compaction, covering and slope stabilization, which can increase the demand for skilled labor and equipment.



  • Higher maintenance needs: small sanitary landfills require more intensive and prolonged post-closure care, such as final covering, revegetation, maintenance and monitoring, which can increase the long-term liabilities and costs for the municipalities.



  • Higher potential for environmental impacts: small sanitary landfills can pose higher risks of groundwater contamination, gas emissions, odors, fires, pests and diseases if they are not properly designed and operated according to the norm.



Therefore, municipalities that opt for small sanitary landfills should ensure that they comply with the norm and adopt good practices for waste management, such as waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting. These practices can help extend the lifespan of the landfills, reduce the amount of waste disposed of, save natural resources and energy, generate income and employment opportunities, and improve the environmental quality and public health of the municipalities.


Conclusion




In conclusion, Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 is a norm that specifies the minimum requirements for location, design, implementation, operation and closure of small sanitary landfills. It is an important tool for municipalities that want to improve their urban solid waste management and reduce their environmental impacts and risks.


The norm provides guidelines that ensure the protection of human health and the environment and comply with the national policy on solid waste management. It applies to urban solid wastes generated by households, commercial establishments, public services and similar sources. It excludes hazardous, industrial, health care and construction wastes.


The norm also offers technical criteria for selecting suitable areas for small sanitary landfills, recommending systems for environmental protection, suggesting methods for waste compaction, covering and slope stabilization, establishing procedures for operational control, and defining steps for closure and post-closure care.


Small sanitary landfills are a viable alternative for small and medium-sized municipalities that cannot afford large-scale landfills or waste treatment plants. They can offer several benefits, such as lower cost, easier implementation, less land use, less transportation distance and less social resistance. However, they also have some limitations and challenges, such as limited capacity, higher operational complexity, higher maintenance needs and higher potential for environmental impacts. Therefore, municipalities that opt for small sanitary landfills should ensure that they comply with the norm and adopt good practices for waste management, such as waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting.


FAQs




  • Q: Where can I download Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15?



  • A: You can download it from the ABNT website (www.abnt.org.br) or from other online sources such as Scribd (https://pt.scribd.com/document/421749989/NBR-158492010).



  • Q: How much does Abnt Nbr 15849 Pdf 15 cost?



  • A: The norm costs about R$100 (Brazilian reals) or about US$25 (American dollars).



  • Q: How many small sanitary landfills are there in Brazil?



  • A: According to a survey conducted by ABRELPE (Brazilian Association of Public Cleaning and Special Waste Companies) in 2018, there were 1,599 small sanitary landfills in Brazil, representing 28.8% of the total number of landfills in the country.



  • Q: What are the advantages and disadvantages of small sanitary landfills compared to other waste disposal methods?



  • A: Some advantages of small sanitary landfills are: lower cost, easier implementation, less land use, less transportation distance and less social resistance. Some disadvantages are: limited capacity, higher operational complexity, higher maintenance needs and higher potential for environmental impacts if not properly designed and operated.



  • Q: What are some examples of successful small sanitary landfills in Brazil?



  • A: Some examples are: the small sanitary landfill of São José dos Campos (SP), which has a capacity of 40 tons per day and serves a population of about 50 thousand people; the small sanitary landfill of São Miguel do Oeste (SC), which has a capacity of 25 tons per day and serves a population of about 40 thousand people; and the small sanitary landfill of Itapiranga (AM), which has a capacity of 10 tons per day and serves a population of about 10 thousand people.




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